Page 10 - Carotid and peripheral vascular interventions textbook
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                     A                        B

                    Figure  14-5.  Diagnostic venogram from AVF access. A: Digital subtraction venography injected from a 19-gauge Jelco  catheter
                    in the left brachiocephalic vein graft revealed two sequentially severe stenosis of the vein graft (white arrows). B: Central venography
                    revealed patent left axillary and subclavian veins with severe stenosis of the proximal left brachiocephalic vein (black arrow).


                    Figure  14-6.  Diagnostic digital subtraction venography of left brachiocephalic vein occlusion by injecting contrast at the proximal
                    and distal end of lesion. Round tip of occlusion with side branch is unfavorable anatomy for traversing the lesion from forearm access.

                        Quantitative analysis of the venogram should be   quantitative analysis of the images where intervention is
                    performed with particular attention to the length of the   planned.
                    diseased segment, to measure diameter of the normal      Currently, diagnostic venography of the central
                    reference vein before and after the abnormal segment and   veins  has  regained  its  importance  because  of  the
                    to measure severity of stenosis. A measured calibration   increasing number of dialysis-dependent patients. The
                    of diagnostic catheter or a radiopaque ruler placed in the   indications of arm and central venography are shown
                    f eld of view at the time of imaging can be used to perform   in Table 14-2.
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